Southeastern Native American Rituals

I guest-posted at the Junto: A Group Blog on Early American History about working in Mexico’s National Archive and some other under-utilized archives for colonial Spanish documents. If you’re interested in archives, do also check out Casey Schmitt’s post about working in Spain, Hannah Bailey’s post about French archival work, Jessica Parr’s about research in London, Christopher F. Minty’s about archival work in North America, and Aaron Graham’s about researching in Jamaica.

Here, though, I want to springboard from a presentation I gave at William and Mary’s Graduate Research Symposium in 2015 about the role of Native American ritual as demonstrated in colonial documents. Insights from one expedition, and other historical documents, can speak to political and economic concerns of both historians and anthropologists as well as specific interpretations of Southeastern Indian materials recovered by archaeologists.

My translation of a 1790 report of a ferocious beast guarding a silver mine in Central Florida is now hosted on the Early Americas Digital Archive.  This translation was done in Allison’s Bigelow’s Colonial Translation course at William and Mary with help from her as well as Danielle Tassara, Hannah Berk, and Claire Gillespie in the course with comments also from Jack Martin, Stephanie Hasselbacher, and Felicity Meza-Luna. Cameron Strang has already published about this fascinating report in his 2013 William and Mary Quarterly article where he interprets the journal and related testimony of the expedition by Lower Creek Indian Yaolaychi, translator Alonso Hill, and a reputable gentleman Don Bartolomé de Castro y Ferrer. True to current trends in colonial history, his article provides a wealth of insight into geopolitical ramifications. However, what drew my attention and John Worth’s—who pointed me toward the document (as he has countless other resources!)—was ritual practice and place-making. To stereotype a bit, anthropological interpretations of such themes seem lacking in much historical research, while insights from colonial documents is similarly often missing in archaeological interpretations of prehistoric rituals and materials in Native North America.

Bernardo de Gálvez took advantage of the American Revolution to retake Florida from the British in 1781. He appointed Colonel Vicente Manuel de Céspedes y Velasco Governor of East Florida and a cousin, Bartolomé Benites y Gálvez, treasurer. Benites y Gálvez, in his role as treasurer, commissioned an expedition to search for a silver mine, and his documents in the East Florida Papers include a detailed journal the expedition and interrogation of Yaolaychi. From the 1770s-1790s, material by Bernard Romans, William Bartram, James Adair and others was published for an English-speaking audience, and their works have added a great deal of knowledge to Southeastern Native American conceptions of place. However, Yaolaychi’s interpretations (and perhaps manipulations of rivalries between the Governor and Treasurer of East Florida!) offer even more.

A wealth of place-names, translated by Jack Martin, dot the journal. Many are simply straightforward terms in Muscogee, e.g. “big spring” or “little spring” (oykeyw-oci) or “Water near the town of Itocome” (Oichitocome). Others speak of danger– Chitosase is Muscogee for “there are snakes there.” One reference in particular, though, speaks of reverence, even by the Spanish, who note a place where three rivers meet, describing it as a sort of pit, which is named YcanaJauque. This term literally means “Earth Door” or “Open Ground.”

“With His Breath He Attracts and Cuts the Spirit of the People,” is one of the phrases used to describe this beast and seems to refer to Creators of Southeastern Indians. For the Yuchi, ritual ceremony honors the “One who is Breath” who united the four winds and granted them life.[i] Perhaps even more relevant is the Mikasuki term for the Creator– fisahki:komihci—the maker of breath and life.[ii] Hitchiti, the dominant language of Yaolaychi’s hometown, was mutually intelligible with Mikasuki so this description as a deliberate reference to the power of creation seems plausible.

Alonso Hill interpreted Achuquilipalasco, what he called the beast, as meaning “very fierce animal.” This term is difficult to translate literally, but a term in the center, killi, is a Choctaw word that can mean either large or growling,[iii] which seems to fit Hill’s interpretation. To prepare for hunting it, Yaolaychi took off his clothes aside from a breech-cloth and spread musk over his face and neck, which matches other descriptions of hunting strategies. Yaolaychi described hearing the beast had a “head similar that of a bear; though without ears, or with anything adhered to the head, and with a gold-colored head and neck, whose tongue is parted in half in the form of scissors, or like a serpent, with a body looking like a bear, with a short tail. And, it had very tough skin, which he verified by its being shot at and rejecting bullets that instead rose up in powdered form, or like smoke at the spot where they were given.” He goes on to say “if it discovers a bird, deer, any other animal, even a man, it exhausts him, causing him to faint and be surprised so much that he cannot move or take any action, all of which is necessary for the beast to sustain itself.”

image

Drawing by Dessa Lightfoot

Yaolaychi nervously leads them around a mound, which he says is over the beast’s cave and the Spaniards agree the spot was noteworthy in being the only bit of non-flat land. After turning, Yaolachi sees the beast and runs away. Hill and Castro also “both saw the beast, which was on foot, heading to his cave, and they were able to observe that its head was as had been explained, its shining back and body so intensely silvered that the sunlight refracted off it in the same way as the moon shone off a mirror.”

Benitez y Galvez asked if other similar beasts existed elsewhere, and Yaolaychi mentioned one near the Cherokee Indians, another close to the town of Nocasuque, and another distant from the royal road of Tocoy to the north. Such a broad regional distribution of this belief seems likely—nineteenth and twentieth century anthropologists have described similar creatures, such as Cherokee Uktena[iv] and enormous Horned Serpents.

Jackson Lewis[v] described the Horned Serpent, an animal present in many Southeastern Indian traditions, to John Swanton as “This snake lives in water and has horns like the stag. It is not a bad snake. It crawls out and suns itself near its hole. . . . It does not harm human beings but seems to have a magnetic power over game. If any game animal, such as a deer, comes near the place where this snake is lying it is drawn irresistibly into the water and destroyed…”[vi]

The tie to deer consumption is interesting, but this beast had disposed of a hunting party so may not match such a description as John Swanton collected over a century after the 1790 expedition. However, a similar magnetic power of a water-dwelling beast that guards power and metal, who can only be approached through ritual preparation, certainly ties with a variety of Southeastern and broader spiritual beliefs about Creation and the World.

These spiritual beliefs existed before European contact. Based on nineteenth and twentieth century anthropologists such as John Swanton, archaeologists have interpreted hybrid animals like Yaolaychi’s Beast and Jackson Lewis’ Horned Serpent, as well as powerful thunderbirds and underwater panthers, as being both breathtaking and dangerous. At times, conflicts arose between these beings, as depicted as competing influences on pieces of art, such as this shell gorget of the Caddos of present-day Texas.

Other beings guarded nexuses between our World and Upper and Lower Worlds. This stylization of Mississippian-era worldviews by Jack Johnson and Kent Reilly includes a water panther in a cave under a mound, perhaps akin to Yaolachi’s beast.

upper_lower_worldsMississippian-era cosmos as interpreted by Kent Reilly and others, depiction by Jack Johnson. Incidentally, Kent Reilly is presenting “George Stuart and the Archaeological Site of Etowah, GA: The Imagery of Ritual and Symbolism in Mississippian Art” at the Pre-Columbian Society of Washington, DC on Friday June 10 from 6:15-8:45.

While the Spaniards were ignorant of any broader meaning behind the mine’s guardian, they may have participated in a ritual for safety and good fortune on the way home:
“During this morning, after they had passed a very bad night with a great deal of rain and cold, they made specific signals for the day, which were two clouds of smoke with gross herbs and tree moss and two musket-shots; then the same again. They hung a quilt in a tree, and made several other movements and fires to draw attention. But nothing was sufficient, and a second bad night happened.”

Common themes of Cherokee spells involved addressing the vulnerability of night using the power of smoke[vii], with one spell in particular involved draping cloth over a particular species of tree and wafting smoke from tobacco, gunpowder, and different herbs at daybreak. As was probably the case in 1790, knowledge of the specific materials needed for the ritual is restricted, which, coupled with the lack of concentrated interest by colonial Europeans, makes precise comparison of eighteenth-century to twentieth-century ritual practice difficult.

Strang’s 2013 article rightly considers this expedition in light of other Southeastern Native American stories of hunting and of spiritual danger. His perspective as a historian of science allows him to show that even in the eighteenth century, European officials could still be confused about their New World. But curious and stubborn Europeans like Benites y Galvez, when they utilized insight from Native Americans, offer more than just insight into geopolitics and science. These and other eighteenth-century documents[viii] remain underutilized by historians, archaeologists, and cultural anthropologists for connecting present-day anthropology of Native Americans to the colonial era and even a more distant past. This expedition, authorized by an irritated cousin of a war hero, and carried out by Spaniards ignorant of scientific methods that held a Lower Creek family hostage, only scratches the surface of eighteenth-century insights into Native American worldviews. Further interpretation of historical documents, even ones filed in financial papers, have so much more to say about the survival and transformation of Native American ritual and religion from prehistory to the present!

[i] Jason Baird Jackson 2003. Yuchi Ceremonial Life: Performance, Meaning, and Tradition in a Contemporary American Indian Community

[ii] Bill Grantham 2002. Creation Myths and Legends of the Creek Indians.

[iii] Byington 1915 Dictionary of the Choctaw Language.  https://archive.org/details/choctawlanguag00byinrich

[iv] James Mooney 1902 Myths of the Cherokee https://archive.org/details/cu31924104080076

[v] Jackson Lewis’ great grandson published Creek Indian Medicine Ways: The Enduring Power of Mvskoke Religion http://www.unmpress.com/books.php?ID=2139

[vi] This quote, from Swanton’s 1927 “Religious Beliefs and Medical Practices of the Creek Indians” was quoted from pg 494 of the Creek Sourcebook edited in 1987 by William Sturtevant.

[vii] see Alan Kilpatrick’s 1997 The Night Has a Naked Soul: Witchcraft and Sorcery among the Western Cherokee as well as work by his parents Jack F. and Anna G. Kilpatrick.

[viii] See for example Greg Keyes’ “Myth and Social History in the Early Southeast” pp. 106-115 of Patricia B. Kwachka’s 1994 edited volume Perspectives on the Southeast: Linguistics, Archaeology, and Ethnohistory.

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Anthropology Commencement Schedule

Anthropology Diploma Ceremony

Sunday May 15, 2016

1:30pm

Jefferson Statue

*rain site-Washington 201*

 

 

Anthropology Graduate Reception

Sunday May 15, 2016

3:00pm

Washington Hall 101

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Congratulations to our Stellar Students 2015-2016

We are so proud to announce that our students have been working hard in the Anthropology Department to cross some big items off their graduation checklist. Done and Done!

Elizabeth Scholz and Tom Cuthbertson both successfully defended their master’s theses this past semester. Elizabeth, whose thesis is titled “Teapots in the Tempest: Ceramics and Military Order at 18th Century Fort Stanwix”,  gave an enlightening talk about how military may have used material culture, especially punch bowls, to maintain a social order in a frontier fort. Tom presented his master’s thesis, “A Confluence of Cultures: Complicating the interpretation of 17th century plantation archaeology using data from Rich Neck Plantation.” Tom’s thesis marshals archaeological, historiographic, and ethnohistorical data to use the excavations at the Rich Neck Plantation as a window into the diversity of the 17th century Atlantic world. An interpretation that highlights the composite nature of captive African communities is produced and juxtaposed against interpretations of the same archaeological artifacts and features through the landscape features and material culture of the English land owners. The tandem analysis of these groups through the archaeological record highlights the tension between them and provides insight into the social dynamics between the two groups.

Elizabeth         Tom

Elizabeth Scholz                                                         Tom Cuthbertson

Mallory Moran and Summer Moore passed their grueling qualifying exams, and Summer additionally defended her dissertation proposal and passed with accolades! Summer is examining how household archaeology, during the tumultuous time of King Kamehameha I, of two sites in Hawaii can shed light on the social and political negotiation that occurs on the periphery. Mallory is preparing her dissertation proposal which examines intersectionality and mobility along canoe portage routes in Maine.

Mallory         Summer

Mallory Moran                                                           Summer Moore

 

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Teaching Outside Higher Ed Career Center Event

On Tuesday, David Pratt, American Studies PhD Candidate and Cohen Career Center Graduate Assistant, coordinated an event that caught my eye–Teaching Outside Higher Ed with an Arts & Sciences Graduate Degree. Three panelists discussed their roles and career trajectory in K-12 & museum education. To my knowledge, this is the first event with such a purpose in my 4 years at William and Mary. While advice offered overlapped at times, I wanted to offer some quick insights from each panelist that I found useful.

Kelly Herbst, Physics PhD and Astronomy Curator at the Virginia Living Museum in Newport News, discussed the benefit of dissertation research as well as issues she faced in receiving advice for a non-university career. She enthusiastically remarked that such issues seem to have faded, perhaps in part because institutions have realized the need for further public outreach. She urged attendees to network, including with informal educators, and volunteer—as she proved, with hard work, volunteer positions can turn into full-time administrative ones such as hers!

David Kidd, American Studies PhD, English Department Chair of the Upper School at Norfolk Academy, described a career at a private school as one of wearing different hats. His face lit up when describing creating a senior topics course; the passion in his voice alone demonstrated teaching such a class is more rewarding and less frustrating than adjuncting. He enjoys the excitement of reviewing new or unfamiliar academic material before teaching, and advised us to bring up hobbies, as schools often have an eye out for coaches or club advisors in addition to teachers. Being able to offer “English and field hockey” might be the perfect combination!

Renee Kingan, American Studies PhD Candidate, middle & high school literary arts teacher at the York County School of the Arts in Williamsburg, passionately spoke about the joy of bringing “fresh” ideas from graduate school to her students. She spoke about overcoming her nervousness when moving to new schools as she began new graduate degrees and the pride she felt from principals whose faith in her paid dividends. She emphasized possibilities in quick licensing programs for teachers, the support systems in new schools for new teachers, as well as the need to make time for yourself while in graduate school and beyond.

I appreciate their time and advice! I’m grateful to see a graduate degree as more than just a rite of passage for a career in higher education and I’m excited to see W&M alumni and students demonstrate their ability to synthesize multiple skill sets while passionately working in different institutions.

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North African Andalusi Music Performance

Anthropology students and faculty helped fill Ewell Hall to claustrophobic heights on March 25 to listen to The William and Mary Middle Eastern Music Ensemble’s evening of North African Andalusi Music. This music, derived from medieval Muslim traditions in Southern Spain, came to Virginia by way of central/western Algeria and eastern Morocco. From there, our department’s own Jonathan Glasser brought Nasr-Eddine Chaabane, Amina Bensaad (both also of the Association Riyad el Andalus), Hakim Chitioui and Oussama BouAbdellah from Association Ahbab Cheikh Salah in Oujda, Morocco. Performances from these guests and the local W&M Ensemble with viola, ‘ud, mandolin, mandole, qanun oboe, darbouah, daff, riqq, and other instruments, coupled with great singing and an energetic crowd, made for an amazing event!

2016-03-25 19.43.34

Improvisation sprinkled throughout the well-rehearsed selections offered an organic feel but I kept thinking about the poetic logic behind the music. A few lyrical excerpts below caught my eye (all translations by Jonathan Glasser and Nasr-Eddine Chabaane):

“Your form is like the bending branch and the moon in its constellations,
your eyes darkened without makeup, your eyebrows well-formed.
My body has wasted away with my heart’s longing.
Being close to you is the only medicine that can heal”

“Rise up and see the almonds like coins, sprouting forth from every direction!  …
The walnut leaves began to bloom—the messenger of good tidings has come!”

The performance concluded with colloquial Moroccan poems, with lines including “I am his powerless slave, and my Lord is capable of all…The blood courses through my fingers, his drink sustains. Earth is my bed, the heavens my roof” and another a blessing for Muhammad, deemed a “fount of honor.”

Jonathan Glasser’s Lost Paradise: Andalusi Music in Urban North Africa published just this month, as well as publications by W&M Ensemble founder and co-director Anne Rasmussen,  offer anthropological interpretations about different roles and aspects of Middle Eastern Music as rich as their performances.

Hope to see you all at the next concert in May!

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Life, Work, Anthropology

FullSizeRenderLast Thursday night Martha Higgins, the library staff at Swem, and the Cohen Career Center tempted graduate and undergraduate students alike with pizza, cookies, and the chance to hear from alumni working outside academia. Here’s the lineup.

ROBERT NELSON (American Studies Ph.D.) is director of the Digital Scholarship Lab and affiliated faculty in the American Studies Program at the University of Richmond.

ANTONY OPPERMAN (Anthropology Ph.D.) is the Preservation Program manager at the Virginia Department of Transportation.

BUCK WOODARD (Anthropology Ph.D.) is manager of the American Indian Initiative at Colonial Williamsburg.

DAVID BROWN (History Ph.D.) is co-director of the Fairfield Foundation in Gloucester, Virginia.

SARA BON-HARPER (Anthropology Ph.D., UNC-Chapel Hill) is Executive Director of Ash Lawn-Highland, the home of James Monroe in Albemarle County, Virginia.

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Undergraduate, M.A., and Ph.D. students interested in jobs outside the university classroom listened to how these alums got to where they are, what they do on a daily basis, and how to prepare for alternative intellectual careers. It was raw, engaging, inspiring, and terrifying. As a first year graduate student I sometimes question my sanity and my tentative career path. This panel discussion allowed us a rare opportunity to peer inside the real lives of those who have successfully made their careers outside mainstream academia.

In their respective positions of power, they reach a wide public audience on a daily basis through social media, collaborative projects, interpretive programming, and environmental reports. They engage with the intellectual community in varying degrees, but utilize the skills developed and honed within academia to approach challenges with critical and creative solutions. Each panelist detailed their own serendipitous journey through school and the real world. The most poignant take away from the night was to follow your passion, which will give you the motivation to be the best at what you do. Not completely reassuring to one who is still in the thick of academia, yet an uplifting message.

IMG_3292I appreciate the candid conversation and the panelists’ willingness to approach each question with good humor and the sum of their experience. I, boldly speaking for the mass of current students, look forward to future opportunities and collaborations with Sarah, David, Buck, Robert, Antony, in addition to the other amazing William and Mary alumni who have passed through the Wren.

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Anthropology Power, Foucault-style, at the 15th Annual Graduate Research Symposium

GRS1

The 15th annual Graduate Research Symposium was held in Sadler conference center on campus Friday and Saturday March 18th and 19th. There were over 150 poster and oral presentations by graduate students from William and Mary as well as 16 other regional institutions. This research symposium was actually started by a few students in the American Studies Department, but it was run this year in large part thanks to the Anthropology Department (Jenna Dietmeier, Summer Moore, and Elizabeth Scholz).

GRS2

Friday
9:30 Elizabeth Scholz James room
10:45 Jenna Dietmeier James room
10:45 Mallory Moran Tidewater A
1:00 Summer Moore Tidewater A
1:00 Megan Victor Tidewater A
3:30 Konrad Antczak Chesapeake
3:30 Erin Schwartz Chesapeake
Saturday
11:00 Lauren Alston Bridges Colony Room

 

All of the Anthropology presentations were dynamic and engaging, yet I would like to highlight a few. Summer Moore won the Market Access International, Inc. Award for Excellence in Scholarship in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Elizabeth Scholz won the S. Laurie Sanderson Awards for Excellence in Undergraduate Mentoring. Jenna Dietmeier won the award for the most times “jackass” was mentioned in a presentation about how President George Washington was the father of the American Mule. Mallory Moran won the award for the most programming knowledge held by an Anthropology Graduate student for hand coding her data into a program whose heyday was in the mid 1980s.  

GRSElizabeth

 

Thank you to all the Anthropology students, alumni, and professors who came out to support us! We look forward to next year’s Graduate Research Symposium and how many burritos from the free lunch we can fit into the ziplock bags in our backpacks.

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Rum and Hellfire from Across the Pond

Charlie and Ash color This week has been absolutely hectic, amazing, and full of a myriad of distinguished speakers from the University of Bristol, the History Department, as well as our own department.

Monday, March 14 at 6pm (WASH101): Charlotte Goudge “Liquid Power: An Archaeological Excavation of an Antiguan Rum Distillery”

Tuesday, March 15 at 6pm  (WASH107): Aisling Tierney “The Outrage of the Hell-Fire Clubs: Sex, Satanism, and Shenanigans”

Wednesday, March 16 at 12pm (WASH101): Dr. Gerard Chouin  “Testing the Plague Hypothesis in Sub-Saharan Africa: Snapshots of a Project in the Making”

Thursday, March 17 at 7pm (Sadler Center Commonwealth Auditorium): Jorge Cham, creator of PHD Comics, “The Power of Procrastination”

Friday, March 18 at 12pm (Morton314): Dr. Joe Jones “Detecting Diaspora: Reconstructing Geo-ancestry and Environmental Health from Skeletal Remains”

Sugar Mills, Betty's Hope, Antigua

Charlotte (Charlie) took a phenomenological materialist approach to her site at Betty’s Hope Plantation in Antigua. She examined the landscape as a constructed place of negotiated identities. More specifically, Charlie discussed Betty’s Hope as it was linked into the Atlantic world through its production of rum. Rum was an important socio-economic catalyst during the 17th-20th centuries, traversing social and economic boundaries in a way rarely seen in any society. A highly desirable, luxury product, rum impacted all strata of society lowest slaves to the highest echelons of British society. During the 18th and 19th centuries rum developed from a waste product into highly desirable merchandise; manufactured and consumed by slaves in the Caribbean for distribution and consumption in European markets, the cyclical exchange system came full turn when it was traded to West Africa to be used as a social lubricant to ease tension while buying and selling slaves who were then sent to the plantations to produce more rum. Charlie discussed the rum stillhouse as a microcosm, reflecting the material and ideological complexities of this British colonial plantation in the Caribbean.

st-benedict-oxidized-medal-2043934One artifact in particular stood out, which spurred much post-talk discussion. This is a St. Benedict catholic medallion that was found in the foundation of the stillhouse, placed between fill absent of all other artifacts and sterile soil below. Perhaps it could have been placed as protection for those people building or working in the stillhouse. Josue, a Phd student, suggested that it could have been sabotage from competing Catholic colonial powers towards the protestant British colonial power. It is intriguing that St. Benedict is one of the patron saints of drinking.

hellfire illustration

Aisling (Ash) continued the theme of revelry, taking it to new levels of debauchery when discussing the mysterious 18th century hellfire clubs of the UK. Previous attention to the study of clubs has been conducted by lay historians who do not engage with the materiality or archaeology of the subject. The over-reliance on documentary evidence, devoid of theoretical analysis, resulted in superficial understandings of the clubs in terms of the realities of their activities, why they emerged and disappeared, and their wider impact. These clubs only became known through the historical record when there was a faction and fallout within the club members. Otherwise, there is relatively little known about the members or material culture. Minimal drinking vessels and memorabilia were recovered from her surveys.

Ash focused instead on the known men, women, and architectural legacy of these clubs, specifically this unusual cave built by Sir Francis Dashwood, who was a wealthy aristocrat with huge political power.  His interests included drinking, literature and blasphemy, and the caves were built to reflect these. She employed innovative 3-D scans of the save system which includes odd rooms such as the Benjamin Franklin room, banquet hall, and a river Styx. There is a descent into darkness with choices along the route to go towards the light or the dark. The visceral, symbolic, and ideological discussion of the significance of the cave formations (along with various other material culture meant to challenge Christian theology and notions of decency) would have carried on all night. There are interesting links to notions of trust, friendship, Rabelais, civility, power, and the sacred and the profane.

hellfire4 3D scanning equipment (or garden décor)

Thank you to our visiting scholars! We look forward to your next visit!

Charlie and Ash Ponder Charlie and Ash

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The Secret Lives of Plantation Animals

I am Jenna Carlson Dietmeier, a fifth-year PhD candidate.  My research is focused on the symbolic roles and husbandry of working animals on eighteenth-century Lowcountry and Chesapeake plantations. In my dissertation, I hope to illuminate how working animals were incorporated into the everyday lives of both the planter and the enslaved classes. To do so, I am analyzing the bones of horses and cattle from Drayton Hall and Stobo Plantation in South Carolina, from Oxon Hill Manor in Maryland, and from Mount Vernon in Virginia. Additionally, I have analyzed two articulated eighteenth-century horse skeletons from Jamestown and Yorktown, Virginia, to be used as case studies in my research.

CowSkull JamestownHorse

To study the working lives of animals in the eighteenth century, I am  looking for indications that the animals may have been working animals, such as arthritis and bitwear on the teeth of horses. I am also analyzing historical documents from the regions for information on how these animals were raised and how they might have been used as symbols of power on the plantations.  My research is ongoing, but I am starting to see changes through time in how cattle were raised in each of the regions.  With additional zooarchaeological and historical research this fall, I hope to pinpoint how these changes may or may not have influenced the use of working oxen in each of the regions.

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Fall 2015 Events

Anthropology and History Brown Bags, Omohundro Talks, and other events
Please feel free to add events or email Patrick Johnson with events to add

Thursday, October 15th 2015: 6 PM SWEM Pizza & Data management

Tuesday, October 20: 5:30-7 Career Center Grant/Fellowship Workshop for Anthropology, History, and American Studies Grad Students

Wednesday October 21: Anthropology Brown Bag Washington 101 at noon, Adam Barger, WM Senior Academic Technology Specialist: Overview of current academic technologies

Friday, October 23rd, 12pm-1:30pm: History Dept. Brown Bag Professor Trent Vinson’s discussion of his pre-circulated paper, “Toward the Beloved Community: Martin Luther King, Jr., Albert Luthuli and the Making of the Global Anti-Apartheid Movement”

Friday, October 23rd, 2-4 PM Anthropology Department Homecoming Reception

Tuesday, October 27, 2015:  7 PM Omohundro Talk pre-circulated paper “There’s No Such Thing as ‘Pre-history’: What Chaco, Cahokia, and the Continent’s Longue Durée Can Tell Us about Colonial America?” Julianna Barr, Duke University

Wednesday, November 4: noon College Apartments 5 American Studies Brown Bag, Pedro Cruz Freire, PhD Student in Art and Architectural History at University of Seville, “Cuba and Florida: Guardians of the Spanish Empire in the Gulf of Mexico.”

Friday, November 6th, 1:30pm-3pm: History Dept. Brown Bag Visiting Professor Emily Gioielli’s mock job talk, title TBD

Tuesday, November 10, 2015:  7 PM Omohundro Talk Jessica Parr, University of New Hampshire

Wednesday November 11: Anthropology Brown Bag noon Washington 101, Anthropology Graduate Student Grant Workshop

Friday, November 13th, 12pm-1:30pm: History Dept. Brown Bag Professor Kathrin Levitan’s paper presentation,  “‘I Expect the Ship to Sail every Day’: Convicts and the Post in Nineteenth-Century Britain and Australia.”

Wednesday November 18:  Anthropology Brown Bag noon Washington 101, Matthew Abel, Anthropology Honors Program  “Cultivated spaces: urban farming and neighborhood change”

Friday, November 20th, 2pm-3:30pm
: History Dept. Brown Bag Visiting Professor Dajeong Chung’s mock job talk, “The Invention of Humanitarian Food Relief, 1953-1962: UNICEF and CARE Milk Feeding Programs in South Korea.”

Omohundro Colloquia

American Indian Initiative of Colonial Williamsburg

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